^^ Top ^

Applied Kinesiology (AK) is a system using basic muscle testing for evaluating areas of dysfunction within the body.

  • 1 What is the ICAK?

    The International College of Applied Kinesiology (ICAK) is a non profit interprofessional organisation dedicated to advance manual muscle testing as a system of diagnosis for evaluating areas of dysfunction within the body.
    Read Me...
  • 1 Annual Conference

    Join us in Washington D.C. on July 20-23, 2017, for ICAK-USA's International Meeting.
    Read Me...
  • 1 What is Applied Kinesiology?

    AK uses the Triad of Health. That is Chemical, Mental and Structural factors that balance the major health categories. The Triad of Health is interactive and all sides must be evaluated for the underlying cause of a problem. A health problem on one side of the triad can affect the other sides.
    Read Me...
  • 1 Published Research Papers

    Several hundred studies have shown that musculoskeletal pain produces muscle weakness, the detection of which makes the manual muscle test invaluable in clinical practice.
    Read Me...
  • 1 AK practitioners are all around the world!

    AK practitioners are located around the globe. Find a practitioner near you.
    Read Me...


English Afrikaans Albanian Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Basque Belarusian Bulgarian Catalan Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Croatian Czech Danish Dutch Estonian Filipino Finnish French Galician Georgian German Greek Haitian Creole Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Irish Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Macedonian Malay Maltese Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swahili Swedish Thai Turkish Ukrainian Urdu Vietnamese Welsh Yiddish

Simulation of the Manual Muscle Test based on Goodheart

by means of a mechanical device 


FrankBittman.jpg Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Frank Bittmann 

LauraSchaefer.jpgDr. phil. Laura Schaefer

Intent of the study 

  • Because of its subjective character, the manual muscle test (MMT) according to Goodheart still is not recognized satisfactory. Thus, it is of interest, that the MMT becomes objectified. 

  • For this it could be helpful to have a mechanical device, which imitates the MMT. Within the project, the manual muscle test will be simulated for the first time by a mechanical device based on a pneumatic principle (Fig 1). 

  • Two devices have been constructed – one for the elbow and another for the knee muscles. They open the opportunity to look at the neuromuscular function in a reproducible and objective way. 

  • The main intention of this method is to detect the maximum isometric Adaptive Force (AFisomax), which characterizes the point of the beginning of  yielding during the MMT. (Fig 2)

  • The measured curve of force delivers different relevant parameters. It is hypothesized that muscles which are tested as “weak” do not show lower maximum force, but they seem to start yielding at a lower force level. 

Formulation of a Force Profile Representative of ICAK-IBE Qualified Diplomates (DIBAK)

TrevorChetcuti.jpg Dr. Trevor Chetcuti  BCSc, BAppSc(clinical), DIBAK, CNET

AlanJenks.jpg Dr. Alan Jenks  BSc, DC, DIBAK, DCBCN

Intent of the study 

  • Teaching muscle testing can be a complicated procedure given the specific application of force that is required. Despite being taught for more than 50 years, a novel way of teaching new students the art of muscle testing has yet to be developed.

  • Whilst force profiling of experienced practitioners has occurred in the literature, a large scale assessment of force profiles for experienced diplomates has never been conducted.

  • It is hoped that conducting a large scale force profile collection will allow for better understanding of force application in experienced muscle testers and provide a new and novel way of teaching new students the application and timing of functional manual muscle testing.


ICAK endorses the use of its skills by licensed health professionals only.